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Learn More About Ear, Nose & Throat Conditions
Otolaryngologists, also called ear, nose and throat or ENT specialists, treat diseases and injuries affecting the ear, nose and throat, as well as the head and neck.
Whether you're battling a balance disorder, having trouble hearing or simply sick of seasonal allergies, the ENT specialists on the medical staff at Baylor can help you or your family with treatment for many conditions.
Call 1.800.4BAYLOR for a referral to a physician on the medical staff at one of our hospitals.
Get the information you need about the H1N1 virus.
Influenza (flu) is a highly contagious viral infection. It is one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season.
The flu is a viral infection of the upper respiratory system. This includes the nose, bronchial tubes, and lungs. The flu has these common symptoms:
The flu can make people of any age ill. Most people, including children, are ill with influenza for less than a week. But some children have a much more serious illness and may need to be treated in the hospital. The flu may also lead to pneumonia or death.
Flu viruses are divided into 3 types: A, B, and C.
Influenza types A and B cause epidemics of respiratory illness that happen almost every winter. They often lead to more people needing a hospital stay, and more people dying from the flu. Public health officials focus on stopping the spread of types A and B. One of the reasons the flu remains a problem is because the viruses change their structure often. This means that people are exposed to new types of the virus each year.
Influenza type C usually causes either a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all. It does not cause epidemics and does not have the severe public health impact that influenza types A and B do.
Flu viruses continually change (mutate). This helps the virus to evade a child's immune system. Children (and adults) can get the flu no matter what their age. The process works like this:
A child infected with a flu virus develops antibodies against that virus.
The virus changes.
The "older" antibodies no longer recognize the "newer" virus when the next flu season comes around.
The child becomes infected again.
The older antibodies can give some protection against getting the flu again. Vaccines given each year to protect against the flu contain the influenza virus strain from each type that is expected to cause the flu that year.
A flu virus is generally passed from person to person through the air. This means your child can get the flu by coming in contact with an infected person who sneezes or coughs. The virus can also live for a short time on things like doorknobs, pens or pencils, keyboards, telephone receivers, and eating or drinking utensils. So your child can get the flu virus by touching something that has been handled by someone infected with the virus and then touching his or her own mouth, nose, or eyes.
People are generally the most contagious with the flu 24 hours before they start having symptoms and during the time they have the most symptoms. That's why it is hard to prevent the spread of the flu, especially among children, because they do not always know they are sick while they are still spreading the disease. The risk of infecting others usually stops around the seventh day of the infection.
The flu is called a respiratory disease, but the whole body seems to suffer when a child has it. Children usually become suddenly ill with any or all of the following symptoms:
Fever, which may be as high as 103°F (39.4°C) to 105°F (40.5°C)
Muscle and joint aches and pains
Not feeling well "all over"
Runny or stuffy nose
Most children recover from the flu within a week. But they still feel exhausted for as long as 3 to 4 weeks.
The symptoms of the flu may look like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
A cold and the flu are two different illnesses. A cold is relatively harmless and usually clears up by itself after a period of time. Sometimes a cold may lead to another infection, such as an ear infection. But the flu can lead to complications, such as pneumonia and even death. What may seem like a cold may be the flu. Be aware of these differences:
Low or no fever
Sometimes a headache
Headache (very common)
Stuffy, runny nose
Clear nose or stuffy nose
Mild, hacking cough
Cough, often becoming severe
Slight aches and pains
Often severe aches and pains
Several weeks of fatigue
Sometimes a sore throat
Normal energy level or may feel sluggish
A new flu vaccine is available each year, before the start of flu season. All children, beginning at 6 months, should get the flu vaccine each year, as soon as it is available in their community.
The flu vaccine is available as a shot and a nasal spray. The nasal spray vaccine is for healthy children and adolescents ages 2 to 17 (and in healthy adults ages 18 to 49). It is recommended, instead of the shot, for healthy children ages 2 to 8 years old. The CDC does not recommend the nasal spray for any child for the 2016-2017 flu season.
In general, the nasal spray vaccine should not be given to children who:
Have a weakened immune system
Have an egg allergy
Have asthma or wheezing (young children)
Are taking aspirin ling-term (children and adolescents)
Will have close contact with someone with a weakened immune system within 7 days
Took antiviral medicine in the last 2 days
The flu shot, instead of the nasal spray, should be given to these children. Be sure to talk with your child's healthcare provider about which flu vaccine is right for your child.
Your child's provider may prescribe antiviral medicines to help prevent your child from getting severe long-lasting symptoms or from getting the flu. Talk with your child's healthcare provider about antiviral medicines if your child was around someone with the flu.
You can also help prevent your child from getting the flu by following these tips:
When possible, have your child stay away from or limit contact with infected people.
Have your child wash his or her hands often. Frequent handwashing may reduce, but not eliminate, the risk for infection.
Have your child cover his or her nose and mouth with a tissue or inside elbow when coughing or sneezing to limit spread of the virus.
How well the vaccine works varies from year to year. It depends on how close the flu virus strains in the vaccine match the strain or strains that actually circulate during flu season. Vaccine strains must be chosen 9 to 10 months before the influenza season. Sometimes changes occur in the circulating strains of viruses between the time vaccine strains are chosen and the next flu season. These changes may make it less likely for your child's antibodies to stop the newly mutated virus. This decreases the chance that the vaccine will work.
The most serious side effect of the flu vaccine is an allergic reaction in children who have a severe allergy to eggs. Vaccines available for those with an egg allergy.
Some children who get the vaccine have soreness at the vaccine site. Some children have mild side effects, such as a headache or a low-grade fever for about a day after vaccine. Because these mild side effects are like some influenza symptoms, some people believe influenza vaccine causes the flu. But this is not true, according to the CDC.
The vaccine is recommended for all children 6 months and older. Children who are allergic to eggs may get a different flu vaccine designed for people with an egg allergy. It is especially important that children in these groups get a flu shot:
Children 6 months to 19 years old
Children of any who have a chronic health condition
Children who have a long-term heart or lung condition
Children who have:
Endocrine disorders such as diabetes
Kidney or liver disorders
Weakened immune system from diseases such as HIV or AIDS or taking long-term steroids
Blood disorders such as sickle cell disease
Children and teenagers ages 6 months to 19 years who are taking aspirin as long-term therapy
Children of people in high-risk groups
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
The goal of treatment is to help prevent or ease symptoms. Treatment may include:
Medicines such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve aches and fever. Don't give aspirin to children with a fever without talking to your child's healthcare provider first. The medicine of choice for children is acetaminophen.
Bed rest and more fluids
Medicine for your child's cough. These may be prescribed by your child's provider after a thorough checkup.
Antiviral medicines. These may help to shorten how long your child is ill and ease symptoms. But these medicines don't cure the flu. To work, they must be started within 2 days after symptoms begin. Your child's provider will let you know how long your child should take this medicine. The provider may also prescribe these medicines to help prevent the flu if your child is around someone who has it.
Does your child have the flu? Read more about signs and symptoms.
Influenza, or flu, is an easily spread respiratory tract infection. It is caused by a virus. About 5% to 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu usually starts abruptly, with fever, muscle aches, sore throat, and a cough.
The flu can make people of any age ill. Although most people are ill with the flu for only a few days, some have a much more serious illness and may need to go to the hospital. The flu can also lead to pneumonia and death.
The flu viruses continually change (mutate).Currently, three different influenza viruses circulate worldwide. Vaccines given each year to protect against the flu fight the flu virus strain expected to cause the illness that year.
The flu is caused by a virus. Viruses are generally passed from person to person through the air when an infected person sneezes or coughs.
But the virus can also live for a short time on objects like doorknobs, pens, pencils, keyboards, telephone receivers, and eating or drinking utensils. So you can also get the flu by touching something that has been recently handled by someone infected with the virus and then touching your own mouth, nose, or eyes.
Each person may experience symptoms differently. The flu is called a respiratory disease, but the whole body seems to suffer. People usually become very ill with several, or all, of the following symptoms:
Fever and body aches usually last for 3 to 5 days, but cough and fatigue may last for 2 weeks or more.
The symptoms of the flu may look like other health conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
The flu is diagnosed based on your symptoms. Lab tests may be used to confirm the diagnosis if needed.
Specific treatment for the flu will be determined by your healthcare provider based on:
The goal of treatment for the flu is to help prevent or decrease the severity of symptoms. Treatment may include:
Talk with your healthcare provider for more information.
The most common complication of the flu is pneumonia. It can also cause serious muscle and central nervous system complications. Of those who get the flu, between 3,000 and 49,000 will die from it or from complications. Most of these deaths occur in people over 65.
A new flu vaccine is made each fall. Everyone 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine each season It is usually recommended for specific groups of people, as well as for anyone who wants to avoid having the flu.
The flu vaccine is safe. The CDC and the FDA closely watch vaccine safety, and hundreds of millions of flu vaccines have been safely given across the country for decades.
The flu vaccine can't give you the flu. The most common side effects from a flu shot are soreness where the shot was given and maybe a low fever or achiness. The nasal spray flu vaccine might cause congestion, runny nose, sore throat, or cough. If you do have them at all, these side effects are usually mild and short-lived.
How well the vaccine works varies from person to person. It depends on factors such as age and overall health.
A nasal spray flu vaccine is currently approved to prevent flu in healthy children and teens ages 2 to 17, and healthy adults ages 18 to 49. As with other live virus vaccines, the nasal spray vaccine should not be given for any reason to pregnant women or people with weak immune systems. This includes those with immune deficiency diseases, such as AIDS or cancer, or people who are being treated with medicines that weaken the immune system. The CDC does not recommend the nasal spray for the 2016-2017 flu season. The nasal spray vaccine also should not be given to these groups of people:
These tips can also help keep you from getting the flu:
The flu causes complications that may develop into a more serious disease or become dangerous to some groups, such as older adults and those with chronic health conditions. For these reasons, the CDC recommends that the following groups get a vaccine each year. Always talk with your healthcare provider for more information about who should get the flu vaccine:
Although the flu vaccine is safe, some people should not be vaccinated. These include:
The CDC recommends getting the flu shot every year, as soon as it becomes available in your community. Flu season can begin as early as October and most commonly peaks in the U.S. in January or February, but flu seasons are unpredictable. The flu shot takes 1 to 2 weeks to become effective.
For most people, the flu can be treated at home without seeing your healthcare provider. But if your condition makes you more susceptible to complications from the flu, tell your healthcare provider when you suspect you have the flu. If your symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms, let your healthcare provider know.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
What is influenza and why should you get the vaccine?
Learn how to differentiate between the flu and a cold with these tips.
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